• Resveratrol ... its potential to fight Coronavirus

A compound that has shown promise in trials as effective against the coronavirus is resveratrol

This website is responding to the current situation by bringing together the research papers which show which herbal constituents are effective against the coronavirus at this moment before other treatments have been found.

 By using the whole plant, where there is a long history of human use for healing, means that the safety of the whole plant usage is already established, in a way that compounds extracted from the plants do not have.

The Flower Miners is a company that was formed by a medical herbalist to harness the natural healing ability of plants and provide these remedies in an appealing way.

 The primary coronavirus plant based compound that is being researched is resveratrol. Resveratrol is found abundantly in Japanese knotweed (Poligoni cuspidate / Fallopia japonica) a plant traditionally used to treat flu type illnesses. 

 There are several research papers, with the summary of the findings and links to these in the research section, which show resveratrol is effective against the coronavirus: 

Effective inhibition of MERS-CoV infection by resveratrol

https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-017-2253-8

 Synthesis of stilbene derivatives with inhibition of SARS coronavirus replication.

(Compound 17 is a form of resveratrol)

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5307780/

 Further research in coronaviruses, which could be applicable to the current CoVID-19 pandemic, identifies a number of mechanisms in resveratrol which inhibits viral replication protein synthesis, gene expression and nucleic acid synthesis. Furthermore, resveratrol downregulated apoptosis induced by MERS-CoV, thereby prolonging cellular survival post-infection

MERS-CoV: Understanding the Latest Human Coronavirus Threat

(https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/10/2/93/htm):

Studies have indicated that the extract of Polgonium cuspiatum or its major constituents have anti-inflammatory activities that may benefit patients with arthritis, hepatitis or acute lung injury.  These effects appear due to emodin, trans-resveratrol, citreorosein and polydatin when taken orally.

Some non human trials suggest one of the plant constituents, polydatin, additionally has cardio protective effects, which appears to be one of the symptoms of the Coronavirus and should be explored further. 

A Review of the Pharmacological Effects of the Dried Root of Polygonum cuspidatum (Hu Zhang) and Its Constituents.  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2013/208349/

The full spectrum of the Polgonium cuspiatum constituents are not effectively water soluble, and so these beneficial effects are not contained in tea extracts of the plant. Which are also damaged by heating.

Study on the stability of resveratrol in rhizoma polygoni cuspidati.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17944191

The most effective extraction of the plant constituents is in ethanol of 40-45%.This has the additional benefits in that it can be easily stored

Pre-formulation studies of resveratrol

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4427559/

Potential down sides:

 Resveratrol has the potential to affect ACE 2 receptors in a similar way to angiotensin receptor blocker drugs and taking these drugs over time have been shown to increased ACE 2 receptors, which is related to greater Covid-19 severity in some cases. 

 As a result, it would be sensible to ensure that plants containing resveratrol are not taken for longer than the acute stages of a Coronavirus infection.

 Some research showed that resveratrol increased immune messengers called interferons in animals infected with viruses. Interferons probably help prevent coronavirus infection, but they may worsen inflammation in later stages. An excess of interferon (type I IFN) causes lung complications in people with coronaviruses similar to the 2019 strain (SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV).

 The long history of the plant use for treating flu type infections in humans suggests that the plant form is not associated with significant issues with inappropriate immune responses increasing inflammation.  However, this aspect should be closely monitored.

Research also shows that the whole plant contains constituents that act as a powerful anti-inflammatory and provide therapeutic benefits which resveratrol alone does not provide.

One of the plants with the highest levels of resveratrol (and trans-resveratrol) is Japanese knotweed (called Polygoni cuspidate or its synonym Fallopia japonica). 

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